Nuclear Science

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Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data

Received: 6 December 2022    Accepted: 26 January 2023    Published: 4 February 2023
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Abstract

The article considers a way to compare large bulks of experimental data with theoretical calculations, in which the quality of theoretical models is clearly demonstrated graphically. The main idea of the method consists in grouping physical observables, represented by experiment and theoretical calculation, into samples, each of which characterizes a certain physical process. A further choice of a convenient criterion for comparing measurements and calculations, its calculation and averaging within each sample and then over all samples, makes it possible to choose the best theoretical model in the entire measurement area. Modern analysis of experimental data and their comparison with calculations in the search for exotic states of nuclear matter, where a huge amount of material has been accumulated over several decades, is still largely carried out by eye. Published theoretical data of the three-fluid dynamic model (3FD) applied to the experimental data from heavy-ion collisions at the energy range sNN = 2.7 - 63 GeV are used as example of application of the developed methodology. When analyzing the results, the quantum nature of the fireball, created at heavy ion collisions, was taken into account. Thus, even at energy sNN = 63 GeV of central collisions of heavy ions, there is a nonzero probability of fireball formation without ignition of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the same time, QGP ignition at central collision energies above at least sNN = 12 GeV occurs through two competing processes, through a first-order phase transition and through a smooth crossover. That is, in nature, these two possibilities are realized, which occur with approximately the same probabilities. Modern experiment and theory not only does not consider a fireball, born in collisions of relativistic heavy ions, as a quantum object that can have different quantum states with the same energy pumped into it, but the processing of experimental data itself does not provide for the imposition of any triggers to separate these states from each other. This work takes into account the quantum nature of the fireball and the need to analyze all the information accumulated over decades at once.

DOI 10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11
Published in Nuclear Science (Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2022)
Page(s) 39-44
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Relative Criterion, Chi-Square, Heavy Ion Collisions, Deconfined Matter, QGP, Hadronic Matter, Smooth Crossover, Superposition of Quantum States

References
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[3] H. Appelshaeuser et al. (NA49 Collaboration). Xi and Xi-bar Production in 158 GeV/Nucleon Pb+Pb Collisions. Phys. Lett. B 444 (1998) 523-530. arXiv: nucl-ex/9810005.
[4] T. Anticic et al. (NA49 Collaboration). Λ and Λ-bar Production in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A⋅GeV. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 022302. arXiv: nucl-ex/0311024.
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[12] Khvorostukhin A. S., Skokov V. V., Redlich K. and Toneev V. D. Lattice QCD Constraints on the Nuclear Equation of State. Eur. Phys. J. C 48 (2006) 531-543; arXiv: nucl-th/0605069.
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    Valeriy Kizka. (2023). Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data. Nuclear Science, 7(3), 39-44. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11

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    Valeriy Kizka. Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data. Nucl. Sci. 2023, 7(3), 39-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11

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    AMA Style

    Valeriy Kizka. Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data. Nucl Sci. 2023;7(3):39-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11,
      author = {Valeriy Kizka},
      title = {Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data},
      journal = {Nuclear Science},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {39-44},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ns.20220703.11},
      abstract = {The article considers a way to compare large bulks of experimental data with theoretical calculations, in which the quality of theoretical models is clearly demonstrated graphically. The main idea of the method consists in grouping physical observables, represented by experiment and theoretical calculation, into samples, each of which characterizes a certain physical process. A further choice of a convenient criterion for comparing measurements and calculations, its calculation and averaging within each sample and then over all samples, makes it possible to choose the best theoretical model in the entire measurement area. Modern analysis of experimental data and their comparison with calculations in the search for exotic states of nuclear matter, where a huge amount of material has been accumulated over several decades, is still largely carried out by eye. Published theoretical data of the three-fluid dynamic model (3FD) applied to the experimental data from heavy-ion collisions at the energy range sNN = 2.7 - 63 GeV are used as example of application of the developed methodology. When analyzing the results, the quantum nature of the fireball, created at heavy ion collisions, was taken into account. Thus, even at energy sNN = 63 GeV of central collisions of heavy ions, there is a nonzero probability of fireball formation without ignition of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the same time, QGP ignition at central collision energies above at least sNN = 12 GeV occurs through two competing processes, through a first-order phase transition and through a smooth crossover. That is, in nature, these two possibilities are realized, which occur with approximately the same probabilities. Modern experiment and theory not only does not consider a fireball, born in collisions of relativistic heavy ions, as a quantum object that can have different quantum states with the same energy pumped into it, but the processing of experimental data itself does not provide for the imposition of any triggers to separate these states from each other. This work takes into account the quantum nature of the fireball and the need to analyze all the information accumulated over decades at once.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Comparison of the 3-Fluid Dynamic Model with Experimental Data
    AU  - Valeriy Kizka
    Y1  - 2023/02/04
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11
    T2  - Nuclear Science
    JF  - Nuclear Science
    JO  - Nuclear Science
    SP  - 39
    EP  - 44
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2640-4346
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20220703.11
    AB  - The article considers a way to compare large bulks of experimental data with theoretical calculations, in which the quality of theoretical models is clearly demonstrated graphically. The main idea of the method consists in grouping physical observables, represented by experiment and theoretical calculation, into samples, each of which characterizes a certain physical process. A further choice of a convenient criterion for comparing measurements and calculations, its calculation and averaging within each sample and then over all samples, makes it possible to choose the best theoretical model in the entire measurement area. Modern analysis of experimental data and their comparison with calculations in the search for exotic states of nuclear matter, where a huge amount of material has been accumulated over several decades, is still largely carried out by eye. Published theoretical data of the three-fluid dynamic model (3FD) applied to the experimental data from heavy-ion collisions at the energy range sNN = 2.7 - 63 GeV are used as example of application of the developed methodology. When analyzing the results, the quantum nature of the fireball, created at heavy ion collisions, was taken into account. Thus, even at energy sNN = 63 GeV of central collisions of heavy ions, there is a nonzero probability of fireball formation without ignition of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the same time, QGP ignition at central collision energies above at least sNN = 12 GeV occurs through two competing processes, through a first-order phase transition and through a smooth crossover. That is, in nature, these two possibilities are realized, which occur with approximately the same probabilities. Modern experiment and theory not only does not consider a fireball, born in collisions of relativistic heavy ions, as a quantum object that can have different quantum states with the same energy pumped into it, but the processing of experimental data itself does not provide for the imposition of any triggers to separate these states from each other. This work takes into account the quantum nature of the fireball and the need to analyze all the information accumulated over decades at once.
    VL  - 7
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

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