Nuclear Science

Research Article | | Peer-Reviewed |

Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal

Received: 22 February 2024    Accepted: 4 March 2024    Published: 19 March 2024
Views:       Downloads:

Share This Article

Abstract

The presence of radioactivity, originating from both natural and human-induced sources, is widespread in varying degrees throughout the Earth's crust. Soil, as a fundamental component of the Earth's crust, serves as an ongoing source of exposure to humans. The level of radioactivity in soil is influenced by factors such as soil composition and land usage. It is expected that barren soil exhibits distinct radioactivity levels compared to cultivated soil. To investigate the radioactivity levels within barren soil, a study was conducted on approximately 11 hectares of soil samples located in Niankhene. Utilizing gamma ray spectrometry methodology with a high purity germanium gamma-ray detector, activity concentration levels of radionuclides including 40K, 137Cs, 226Ra, and 232Th were evaluated. A total of 16 soil samples were collected at depths ranging from 0 to 40 cm with 20 cm intervals. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were observed as follows: 40K ranged from below the limit of detection to 34.7 Bq.kg-1; 137Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.80 Bq.kg-1; 226Ra measured was between 7.49 and 101.56 kg-1; and 232Th ranged 0.33 and 12.68 Bq.kg-1. The total dose radiation exposure were 27 nGy/h in this study. Before conducting radiometric measurements, chemical analyses were performed to determine the concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, along with measurements of electrical conductivity and pH levels of the soil samples.

DOI 10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11
Published in Nuclear Science (Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2024)
Page(s) 1-7
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Soil, Gamma Spectrometry, Environmental Radioactivity, 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs

References
[1] Bool, S. W., Hole, Mogracxen, 1976. Soil Genesesis and ClassiAcation, 3, 288–314.
[2] Russal, M. B., 1957. Physical properties in soil. US Agricultural Year Book, Washington DC, pp. 31–38.
[3] Brady et al., 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 10th Edition. Macmillan, London, pp. 243–246.
[4] Zahid, C. S., Hasan, M. K., Aslam, M., Khan, K., Jabbar, A., OrA, S. D., 1999. Measurement of radioactivity level in soil samples of eastern salt range. The Nucleus 36(3–4), 201–204.
[5] IAEA, 1989. Measurement of radionuclides in food and environment. Technical Reports Series no. 295.
[6] COXM, Eank Hauser, B. L., 1994. Distribution of fall out Ceasium-137 in Hawaii, Health Phys. 46, 65–67.
[7] Zahid, C. S., Hasan, M. K., Aslam, M., Iqbal, S., OrA, S. D., 2001. Study of 137Cs contamination in soil and food samples of Jhanger valley, Pakistan. The Nucleus 38(2), 101–105.
[8] Walling, D. E. 2006. The use of fallout radionuclides as tracers in soil erosion investigations. Geomorphology, 79(3-4), 217-239.
[9] Bissonette, J. A., & Storch, I. (Eds.). (2003). Landscape ecology and resource management: Linking theory with practice. Island Press.
[10] Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., & O'Neill, R. V. (2001). Landscape ecology in theory and practice: pattern and process. Springer Science & Business Media.
[11] Wu, J. (2013). Landscape ecology, cross-disciplinary science, and sustainability science. Landscape Ecology, 28(1), 1-4.
[12] Lado, M., Ben-Hur, M., & Schwertmann, U. (1999). Soil sampling and handling. In Handbook of Soil Analysis: Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods (pp. 11-15). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
[13] USDA-NRCS (United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service). (2017). Soil Quality Indicators - Soil Sampling Methods. Retrieved from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/assessment/?cid=nrcs142p2_053869
[14] McCall, P. L. and Otero, E. (eds.) (2017). Environmental Radioactivity: From Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. Fourth Edition. Elsevier.
[15] IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). (2010). Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments. Technical Reports Series No. 472.
[16] Seliman, A. F., and Hassan, A. M. (2016). "Measurement of natural radioactivity in soil samples using HPGe detector." Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 87-94.
[17] Johnson, T. E., and Ticknor, B. W. (2018). "Measurement of cesium-137 in soil samples using an HPGe detector." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 190-191, pp. 1-8.
[18] IAEA (1989) Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment: a guidebook Technical Reports No. 295. IAEA, Vienna.
[19] Samat SB, Evans CJ (1992) Statistics and nuclear counting— theory, problems and solutions. University Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdan.
[20] Currie LA (1968) Limits for qualitative detection and quantitative determination. Anal Chem 40(3): 586–693.
[21] Tawalbeh AA, Samat SB, Yasir MS (2013) Radionuclides level and its radiation hazard index in some drinks consumed in central zone of Malaysia. Sains Malays. 42(3): 319–323.
[22] Jodłowski P, Kalita SJ (2010) Gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory for high-precision measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples. Nukleonika 55: 143.
[23] ICRP (1983) International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radionuclide transformations. Publication of International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP-38, 11–13.
[24] IAEA (1989) International Atomic Energy Agency. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment. Technical report series, No. 295. IAEA, Vienna.
[25] UNSCEAR (2000) Sources and efects of Ionizing radiation. Report to the general assembly with scientifc annexes. New York.
[26] Lee, S. C., Kein, C. K., Lee, D. M., Kang, H. D., 2001. Natural radionuclides content and radon exhalation rates in building material used in South Korea. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry 94(3), 269–274.
[27] Nasim Akhtara, M. Tufailb, M. Ashraf c, M. Mohsin Iqbal. Measurement of environmental radioactivity for estimation of radiation exposure from saline soil of Lahore, Pakistan (2005) 11–14.
[28] Kohler, K., Gleisberg, B., Niece, S., 1996. Investigation of soil plant transfer of primordial radionuclides in tomatoes by low level γ-ray spectroscopy. Appl. Radiation and Isotopes 53(1–2), 203–220.
[29] Bhatti, T. M., Malik, K. A. 1994. Phosphate fertilizers as a potential source for Uranium recovery as by product. A technical Report on Paec/NIBGE-2/1994. National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad.
[30] Hamid, B. N., Chowdhury, M. I., Aslam, M. N., Islam, M. N., 2002. Study of natural radionuclides concentration in area of elevated radiation background in the northern districts of Bangladesh. Radiat. Protection and Dosimetry 98(2), 227–230.
[31] Miah, F. K., Roy, S., Touhiduzzaman, N., Alan, B., 1998. Distribution of radionuclides in soil samples in and around Dhaka city. Appl. Radiation and Isotopes 49(1–2), 133–137.
[32] Skorovarov, J. I., Rusin, L. I., Lomonsov, A. V., Chaforian, H., Hashemi, A., Novaseqhi, H., 2000. Development of Uranium extraction technology from phosphoric acid solutions with extract. Proc. Int. Conf. Uranium Extraction from Soil 217, 106–113.
[33] Hussain, A., 1994. Determination of uranium and thorium concentration in rock samples. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Phys. 188(4), 255–265.
[34] IAEA, 2003. Extent of environmental contamination by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technological options for mitigation. Technical Report Ser. No. 419.
[35] Selvasekarapandia, S., Sivakumar, R., Manikendan, N. M., Meenakshisundaram, V., Gajendran, V., 1996. Natural radionuclides distribution in soils of Gudalore India. Appl. Radiation and Isotopes 52(2), 299–306.
[36] UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and effects of ionizing radiations. Report to General Assembly, with ScientiAc Annexes, United Nations, New York.
[37] Djicknack Dione, Modou Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine Sane, Cheikh Ahmadou, Bamba Dath and Ababacar Sadikhe Ndao, 2018. Survey of Activity Concentration and Dose Estimation of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in the Coastal area of Dakar, Senegal. 7(3).
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Dione, D., Faye, P. M., Sy, M. H., Ndiaye, O., Ndiaye, N., et al. (2024). Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal. Nuclear Science, 9(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Dione, D.; Faye, P. M.; Sy, M. H.; Ndiaye, O.; Ndiaye, N., et al. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal. Nucl. Sci. 2024, 9(1), 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Dione D, Faye PM, Sy MH, Ndiaye O, Ndiaye N, et al. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal. Nucl Sci. 2024;9(1):1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11,
      author = {Djicknack Dione and Papa Macoumba Faye and Moussa Hamady Sy and Oumar Ndiaye and Nogaye Ndiaye and Alassane Traoré and Ababacar Sadikhe Ndao},
      title = {Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal},
      journal = {Nuclear Science},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-7},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ns.20240901.11},
      abstract = {The presence of radioactivity, originating from both natural and human-induced sources, is widespread in varying degrees throughout the Earth's crust. Soil, as a fundamental component of the Earth's crust, serves as an ongoing source of exposure to humans. The level of radioactivity in soil is influenced by factors such as soil composition and land usage. It is expected that barren soil exhibits distinct radioactivity levels compared to cultivated soil. To investigate the radioactivity levels within barren soil, a study was conducted on approximately 11 hectares of soil samples located in Niankhene. Utilizing gamma ray spectrometry methodology with a high purity germanium gamma-ray detector, activity concentration levels of radionuclides including 40K, 137Cs, 226Ra, and 232Th were evaluated. A total of 16 soil samples were collected at depths ranging from 0 to 40 cm with 20 cm intervals. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were observed as follows: 40K ranged from below the limit of detection to 34.7 Bq.kg-1; 137Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.80 Bq.kg-1; 226Ra measured was between 7.49 and 101.56 kg-1; and 232Th ranged 0.33 and 12.68 Bq.kg-1. The total dose radiation exposure were 27 nGy/h in this study. Before conducting radiometric measurements, chemical analyses were performed to determine the concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, along with measurements of electrical conductivity and pH levels of the soil samples.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in the Niankhene Agricultural Field in Senegal
    AU  - Djicknack Dione
    AU  - Papa Macoumba Faye
    AU  - Moussa Hamady Sy
    AU  - Oumar Ndiaye
    AU  - Nogaye Ndiaye
    AU  - Alassane Traoré
    AU  - Ababacar Sadikhe Ndao
    Y1  - 2024/03/19
    PY  - 2024
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11
    T2  - Nuclear Science
    JF  - Nuclear Science
    JO  - Nuclear Science
    SP  - 1
    EP  - 7
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2640-4346
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ns.20240901.11
    AB  - The presence of radioactivity, originating from both natural and human-induced sources, is widespread in varying degrees throughout the Earth's crust. Soil, as a fundamental component of the Earth's crust, serves as an ongoing source of exposure to humans. The level of radioactivity in soil is influenced by factors such as soil composition and land usage. It is expected that barren soil exhibits distinct radioactivity levels compared to cultivated soil. To investigate the radioactivity levels within barren soil, a study was conducted on approximately 11 hectares of soil samples located in Niankhene. Utilizing gamma ray spectrometry methodology with a high purity germanium gamma-ray detector, activity concentration levels of radionuclides including 40K, 137Cs, 226Ra, and 232Th were evaluated. A total of 16 soil samples were collected at depths ranging from 0 to 40 cm with 20 cm intervals. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were observed as follows: 40K ranged from below the limit of detection to 34.7 Bq.kg-1; 137Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.80 Bq.kg-1; 226Ra measured was between 7.49 and 101.56 kg-1; and 232Th ranged 0.33 and 12.68 Bq.kg-1. The total dose radiation exposure were 27 nGy/h in this study. Before conducting radiometric measurements, chemical analyses were performed to determine the concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, along with measurements of electrical conductivity and pH levels of the soil samples.
    
    VL  - 9
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Institute Technologies of Nuclear Applied, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal

  • Sections